THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 287 notable passage, " is too noble a being to be obliged to serve simply as an instrument for others, and should not be employed at what he is fit for, without also taking into account what is fit for him ; for men are not made for their stations, but their stations for men." * This is the first enunciation of the idea more generally and more positively stated in the Kantian maxim : " Act so as to use humanity whether in your own person or in the person of another, always as an end, never as a means," and as such it marks the beginning of a new epoch in social history. It scarcely needs to be said that Rousseau had no monopoly of the reforming spirit. Even the most negative of critics had some notions of their own about the kind of society they wanted to see in the place of the one they condemned, and had something to contribute to the discussion of the means of social betterment. More particularly in a subject like education, which all who had any desire for reform recognized to be of fundamental importance, there was a considerable variety of opinions and plans. In point of fact, two opposing tendencies began to appear in speculation about educational reconstruction, corresponding broadly to the difference in point of view of Rousseau and the Encyclopedists. In both cases, the philosophical starting-point was a view of the nature of mind derived from Locke. In the Essay on Human Understanding, Locke had traced back knowledge to two sources: to the materials received passively through the senses, and to the mind's own activity in working up these materials through the several operations summarily described by him as " reflection." Simple as it appears, this distinction of a passive and an active element in mind had great scope in it for differences in inter- pretation, as soon became evident in the various schools of philo- sophy which called Locke master. Some emphasized the passivity of mind in relation to experience and deduced a materialistic view from its absolute dependence on the senses for all it knows. Others, again, saved themselves from materialism by putting the emphasis on mental activity and giving the mind a value it could not have if it were mainly receptive. It was along these paths that the thinkers of the Enlightenment who concerned themselves about education also diverged. Those among them who took the sensationalist view that the mind is determined by what it gets from the senses held that the individual man is largely, if not * New Heloiiet v, 2.